We think of citizenship as a binary category: you’re either a citizen or you’re not. But the levels of membership can be complex. Refugees and asylum seekers often find that the criteria for acceptance change, as states devise rationales to exclude them. Three Weatherhead Center sociologists reveal the motivations behind various immigration policies, from the colonial past to the present, and discuss the ethics and impact of open borders.
India's 100 million internal migrant workers are now stranded under COVID-19 lockdown measures and cannot return home. Faculty Associate Sai Balakrishnan maps the pathways of migrant laborers and describes the policies that created an east-west divide.